Majhauli Malla - Conversion of Bodh Mall - Turning Point in Gorakhpur Kshtriya History
The Bisens Rajputs of Majhauli claim their descent from famous ascetic Mayur Bhat. Mayur Bhat is a descendent of Rishi Jamdagni. Mayur Bhat by one of his suryavanshi rajput wife, named Suraj prabha, had a son “Biswa Sen” who was great ancestor of Bisen clan. After him, there were 79 generation of Rajas who titled “Sen”. The 80th raja Hardeo Sen on account of his bravery got the title of "Malla" from one of Delhi emperors. They also used "Malla" title as Surajprabha, wife of Mayur Bhatta and mother of Bisva Sen was from "ancient Malla dynasty of Ishvaku Suryavanshi Kshtriyas". The expected time of taking "Malla" title was around 1000 A.D - 1100 A.D. In 12th century, a section of these Malla went to Nepal and ruled there till Shah dynasty came in power.
Thereafter they used "Malla" title and the 23rd malla generation Raja Bodh Mall was forcefully converted to Islam due to default in paying of revenues and named as Raja Salem (Raja Islam). On his return from Delhi, rani refused to take him in Majhauli and therefore he crossed the Gandak river. There he faced stiff resistance from Bhatpar Rani, a sainthwar rani, and a battle started between them. The local folk says that a section of mallas (Madhuban Patti) also supported her against Raja Salem. Soon, the Mughal emperor intervened and a settlement was made whereby one side of Gandak river will be rule by Rani Bhatpara and other side will be ruled by Raja Salem.
Even though the raja was muslim, and never welcomed in Majhauli, he kept the town name as “Salempur-Majhauli”. So still we can see that one side of Gandak river is developed as “Bhatpara Rani Town” and other side of river as “Salempur – Majhauli”.
During this period, Rani of Majhauli maintained the raj with her minor son “Raja Bhawani Mal”. The estimated period of Bhawani Mall was 1690-early eighteenth century. It is also recorded in the book named as “Attharavi Sadi ke Jamindar”. After Bhawani Mall, the Raja Ajit Mall (1753-1806), raja Tej Mal (1815-1843). After that Raja Udai Narayan Mall and his son Lal Kharg Bahadur Mall.
The conversion of Bodh Mall was turning point in the history of Deoria and Gorakhpur. After the death of Bodh Mall as Raja Salem, he wished his last rites to be done by Hindu system. However during this, Mallas of Madhuban boycotted the Brahmabhoj ceremony and thereafter the enmity between Majhauli and Madhuban Mallas increased. Madhuban Mallas were supported by Gonda and Kalankar’s Bisen rajputs alongwith Gaharwars of Padrauna and sainthwars of Kusinagar.
The family history looks to be distorted in certain literatures whereby the conversion of Bodh Mall was shown in Akbar Period in 1564 A.D. These literatures were written around 1880 and some after Independence. Majhauli estate which supported British government during 1857 revolt, distorted certain facts to take revenge from Madhuban Malla. The very fact is that it is not possible for Bhawani Malla, Son of Bodh Malla, to be ruler of Majhaulu estate from 1564 A.D to 1750 A.D. The expected conversion time of Bodh Malla was in Aurangjeb's period around 1690 A.D.
The family chain shows that Dev Mall had three sons, Prasad Malla, Madhav Malla and one more. Prasad Malla ruled Majhauli and Madhav Malla ruled Madhuban.
The family chain:
Dev Mall 1550 AD, during Akbar period had three sons and devided the Majhauli estate for administrative purpose. 1. Prasad Malla (ruler Majhauli) 2. Madhav Malla ( ruler Madhuban) and 3. one more son.
Prasada Malla Family Chain goes like this:-
Bhim Malla (Jahangir period)
Rup Malla (Shahjahan Period)
Bodh Malla ( Aurangjeb period)
Bhawani Malla ( late 17th century to early eighteenth century)
Madhav Malla's next generation is Nathu Malla who was at the same period of Bhim Malla during Jahangir period and is mentioned in Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri. Nathu Malla established a town on his own name and is known as Nathupur.
One important thing to note is that these MALLA are not the same old MALLA dynasty described in Ramayana, Mahabharata and Buddha Period. Though the mother of BisvaSen, Surajprabha, was from the same old MALLA dynasty. The larger section of MALLA described in Ramayana and Buddha literatures are todays Sainthwar.
BISEN Malla also admit that they had Brahminical connection. Even the epicenter of Kshtriyas, Oudh, the modern day Ayodhya, never considered BISEN MALLA as kshtriya. They are also known as "Bhiranga Raja" due to Brahminical connection. However, they are considered as Kshtriya in social culture and systems as the Malla took the culture of mother side.
1. The golden book of India, a genealogical and biographical dictionary of the ruling princes, chiefs, nobles - By Sir Roper Lethbridge
by Radhey Raman Saksena - History- 1965 - 224 pages
edited by S. M. Ahmed - History- 1955 - 265 pages